Frequently Asked Questions
Q. Where did Montessori come from?
A. Montessori (pronounced MON-tuh-SORE-ee) education was founded in 1907 by Dr. Maria Montessori, the first woman in Italy to become a physician. She based her educational methods on scientific observation of children’s learning processes. Guided by her discovery that children teach themselves, Dr. Montessori designed a “prepared environment” in which children could freely choose from a number of developmentally appropriate activities. Now, nearly a century after Maria Montessori’s first casa dei bambini (“children’s house”) in Rome, Montessori education is found all over the world, spanning ages from birth to adolescence.
Q. Where can I find a good, brief, introduction to Montessori from birth through the school years?
A. At the Michael Olaf Montessori “text”site, which is actually an E-book of Montessori philosophy and practice: www.michaelolaf.net.
Q. What is the difference between Montessori and traditional education?
A. Montessori emphasizes learning through all five senses, not just through listening, watching, or reading. Children in Montessori classes learn at their own, individual pace and according to their own choice of activities from hundreds of possibilities. Learning is an exciting process of discovery, leading to concentration, motivation, self-discipline, and a love of learning.
Montessori classes place children in three-year age groups (3-6, 6-9, 9-12, and so on), forming communities in which the older children spontaneously share their knowledge with the younger ones. Montessori represents an entirely different approach to education.
Q. Can I do Montessori at home with my child?
A. Yes, you can use Montessori principles of child development at home. Look at your home through your child’s eyes. Children need a sense of belonging, and they get it by participating fully in the routines of everyday life. “Help me do it by myself” is the life theme of the preschooler. Can you find ways for your child to participate in meal preparation, cleaning, gardening, caring for clothes, shoes, and toys? Providing opportunities for independence is the surest way to build your child’s self-esteem.
At the school level many homeschooling and other parents use the Montessori philosophy of following the child’s interest and not interrupting concentration to educate their children.
In school only a trained Montessori teacher can properly implement Montessori education, using the specialized learning equipment of the Montessori “prepared environment.” Here social development comes from being in a positive and unique environment with other children — an integral part of Montessori education.
Q. Is Montessori good for children with learning disabilities? What about gifted children?
A. Montessori is designed to help all children reach their fullest potential at their own unique pace. A classroom whose children have varying abilities is a community in which everyone learns from one another and everyone contributes. Moreover, multiage grouping allows each child to find his or her own pace without feeling “ahead” or “behind” in relation to peers.
Q. What ages does Montessori serve?
A. There are more Montessori programs for ages 3-6 than for any other age group, but Montessori is not limited to early childhood. Many infant/toddler programs (ages 2 months to 3 years) exist, as well as elementary (ages 6-12), adolescent (ages 12-15) and even a few Montessori high schools.
Q. Are Montessori children successful later in life?
A. Research studies show that Montessori children are well prepared for later life academically, socially, and emotionally. In addition to scoring well on standardized tests, Montessori children are ranked above average on such criteria as following directions, turning in work on time, listening attentively, using basic skills, showing responsibility, asking provocative questions, showing enthusiasm for learning, and adapting to new situations.
Q. I recently observed a Montessori classroom for a day. I was very very impressed, but I have three questions.
1. There doesn’t seem to be any opportunities for pretend play
2. The materials don’t seem to allow children to be creative
3. Children don’t seem to be interacting with another very much Any help you give me would be appreciated. Thank you very much.
A. I can give you three very incomplete answers to your perceptive questions:
(1) When Dr. Montessori opened the first Children’s House it was full of pretend play things. The children never played with them as long as they were allowed to do real things – i.e. cooking instead of pretending to cook. It is still true.
(2) the materials teach specific things and then the creativity is incredible. Like learning how to handle a good violin and then playing music. It is not considered “creative” to use a violin as a hammer, or a bridge while playing with blocks. We consider it “creative” to learn how to use the violin properly and then create music. The same goes for the materials in a Montessori classroom.
(3) there is as much interaction as the children desire, but the tasks are so satisfying that, for these few hours a day, children want to master the challenges offered by them. Then they become happier and kindertrue socialization. Also, since concentration is protected above all, as all “work” is respected, children learn early on not to interrupt someone who is concentrating.
Q. How do I find Montessori schools in my area?
A. There are thousands of Montessori schools in the world, but your must realize that the word “Montessori” is not legally protected and can be used by anyone. This has tarnished the name here in the USA. For information on finding a good Montessori school, go to: www.montessori.edu/refs.html.If his doesn’t help you, look in your phone book, get the literature of local schools, observe, and compare what you learn with you read on this site.
Q. Who accredits or oversees Montessori schools?
A. Unfortunately no one body can accredit the Montessori element of schools, but there are state requirements for schools in genera. There are several Montessori organizations to which schools can belong. The two major ones operating in the United States are the Association Montessori Internationale (AMI, with a U.S. branch office called AMI-USA) and the American Montessori Society (AMS). Parents considering placing a child in a Montessori school should ask about the school’s affiliation(s).
Parents must carefully research, and observe a classroom in operation, in order to choose a real Montessori school for their child.
Q. How much does Montessori cost?
A. (From NAMTA figures, 1998) Because all Montessori schools are operated independently of one another, tuitions vary widely. According to a 1996 NAMTA survey of U.S. and Canadian Montessori schools, tuitions range from a low of under $999 per year to a high of over $11,000 per year. Median annual tuition by age level was as follows: (NOTE: these figures are several years old and may not apply)
Infant/toddler: $3,480 + (sometimes more than $7000 because of the ratio of adult to child, and the cost of living in some places in the US.)
Ages 3-6, 3-hour day: $2,550 +
Ages 3-6, 4-hour day: $3,300 +
Ages 3-6, 6-hour day: $4,300 +
Ages 6-12: $4,700 +
Ages 12-15: $5,440 +Also keep in mind that there are many Montessori programs in public schools, which charge no tuition at all to students within their district.
Q. How many Montessori schools are there?
A. There are at least 4,000 certified Montessori schools in the United States and about 7,000 worldwide.
Q. Are Montessori schools religious?
A. Some are, but most are not. Some Montessori schools, just like other schools, operate under the auspices of a church, synagogue, or diocese, but most are independent of any religious affiliation.
Q. Are all Montessori schools private?
A. No. Approximately 200 public schools in the U.S. and Canada offer Montessori programs, and this number is growing every year.
Q. What does it take to start a Montessori school?
A. The essential element of any Montessori school is the fully-trained Montessori teacher. A good starting point is a group of parents who want Montessori for their children. The next step is to look into state and local requirements for schools, such as teacher training, facilities, class size, etc. Selecting a site and making sure it meets applicable building codes is also an early part of the process. Montessori materials and furniture must be purchased, and, unless one of the founders has taken Montessori training, a teacher must be hired.
Q. What special training do Montessori teachers have?
A. As with the choice of a Montessori school for children, an adult must also exercise wisdom in choosing a teacher training course. Anyone can legally use the name “Montessori” in describing their teacher training organization. One must be sure the certification earned is recognized by the school where one desires to teach.
The two major organizations offering Montessori training in the United States are the Association Montessori Internationale (AMI, with a U.S. branch office called AMI-USA) and the American Montessori Society (AMS). Most training centers require a bachelor’s degree for admission.
There are courses, such as “distance learning” or “correspondence courses” which can help one better understand Montessori theory or which can train adults to work in certain schools. Sometimes these are the only possibility, but they do not fully prepare one for the intensive and fulfilling work with a classroom of children. When choosing a training course it is important to balance the amount o time and money one can spend with the teaching opportunities desired, and to find out ahead of time if your certification earned will allow you to teach in a school you are considering.
Q. What is the Montessori Training of the author of the Michael Olaf publications?
A. Susan earned a BA with a major in philosophy. Her first Montessori training was the AMI training center in London, England (MMTO, email: [email protected]) This was a yearlong intensive, full-time course which certified her to teach children from age 2.5 years to 7. Later she earned an AMI certificate for ages 6-12 at the Washington Montessori Institute, another full-year course, and Masters degree from Loyola at Baltimore (www.loyola.edu/education/Montessori/wmi.html) and then the AMI certificate for birth to three in Denver (TMI www.tmidenver.com) and Rome. Finally she studied with Howard Gardner at the Harvard Fraduate School of Education (www.gse.harvard.edu) to learn more about his theory of Multiple Intelligences on which she had based a masters paper.
Susan considers the most valuable elements of her training were:
(1) the quality of the teacher-trainers who have undergone rigorous preparation, including the AMI diploma, 5 years of teaching, and 5 more years of teacher training.
(2) the many hours of hands-on practicals, or work at the training center practicing with the materials with other adult students, under the guidance of the trainers, instead of “practicing on children.”
(3) the production of ones own albums. Here is the system: lecture on the pieces of material, the description, many stages of use, purpose, and indirect preparation. Followed by hours of practice and discussion, followed by a detailed write-up with hand-drawn illustration of each piece of materials by memory producing one’s own personal “teaching albums”. After all this word the lessons are automatic, in ones hands, and the teacher is free to do all of the other work in the class with the certainty of knowing exactly what to present to each child and when.
(4) rigid oral and written exams on the needs of children, and all elements of teaching in a Montessori class, overseen from an “external” examiner often from another country. This make sure that the training course, as well as the students are maintaining the highest AMI (Association Montessori Internationale) standards.
of the Montessori method
as practiced in Montessori Schools
Protection of the “best” in each child through respect of choice and concentration
The most important discovery that Dr. Montessori has contributed to the field of child development and education is the fostering of the best in each child. She discovered that in an environment where children are allowed to choose their work and to concentrate for as long as needed on that task, that they come out of this period of concentration (or meditation or contemplation) refreshed and full of good will toward others. The teacher must know how to offer work, to link the child to the environment who is the real teacher, and to protect this process. We know now that this natural goodness and compassion are inborn, and do not need to be taught, but to be protected.
The schedule – The three-hour work period
Under the age of six, there are one or two 3-hour, uninterrupted, work periods each day, not broken up by required group lessons. Older children schedule meetings or study groups with each other the teacher when necessary.Adults and children respect concentration and do not interrupt someone who is busy at a task. Groups form spontaneously or are arranged ahead by special appointment.They almost never take precedence over self-selected work. Note: For more information on the “three-hour work period” see the chapter “My Contribution to Experimental Science” from The Advanced Montessori Method, Volume I, by Dr. Maria Montessori, or contact the Michael Olaf Montessori Company at [email protected] for reprint GB850
Children are grouped in mixed ages and abilities in three to six year spans: 0-3, 3-6, 6-12 (sometimes temporarily 6-9 and 9-12), 12-15, 15-18. There is constant interaction, problem solving, child to child teaching, and socialization. Children are challenged according to their ability and never bored. The Montessori middle and high school teacher ideally has taken all three training courses plus graduate work in an academic area or areas.
The environment is arranged according to subject area, and children are always free to move around the room instead of staying at desks. There is no limit to how long a child can work with a piece of material. At any one time in a day all subjects — math, language, science, history, geography, art, music, etc., will be being studied, at all levels.
Teaching method – “Teach by teaching, not by correcting”
There are no papers turned back with red marks and corrections. Instead the child’s effort and work is respected as it is. The teacher, through extensive observation and record-keeping, plans individual projects to enable each child to learn what he needs in order to improve.
Teaching Ratio – 1:1 and 1:30+
Except for infant/toddler groups (Ratio dictated by local social service regulations), the teaching ratio is one trained Montessori teacher and one non-teaching aide to 30+ children. Rather than lecturing to large or small groups of children, the teacher is trained to teach one child at a time, and to oversee thirty or more children working on a broad array of tasks. She is facile in the basic lessons of math, language, the arts and sciences, and in guiding a child’s research and exploration, capitalizing on his interest in and excitement about a subject. The teacher does not make assignments or dictate what to study or read, nor does she set a limit as to how far a child follows an interest.
The Montessori teacher spends a lot of time during teacher training practicing the many lessons with materials in all areas. She must pass a written and oral exam on these lessons in order to be certified. She is trained to recognize a child’s readiness according to age, ability, and interest in a specific lesson, and is prepared to guide individual progress.
Areas of study
All subjects are interwoven, not taught in isolation, the teacher modeling a “Renaissance” person of broad interests for the children. A child can work on any material he understands at any time.
Except for infant/toddler groups, the most successful classes are of 30-35 children to one teacher (who is very well trained for the level she is teaching), with one non-teaching assistant. This is possible because the children stay in the same group for three to six years and much of the teaching comes from the children and the environment.
All kinds of intelligences and styles of learning are nurtured: musical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, intuitive, and the traditional linguistic and logical-mathematical (reading, writing, and math). This particular model is backed up by Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences.
There are no grades, or other forms of reward or punishment, subtle or overt. Assessment is by portfolio and the teacher’s observation and record keeping. The test of whether or not the system is working lies in the accomplishment and behavior of the children, their happiness, maturity, kindness, and love of learning and level of work.
Requirements for age 0-6
There are no academic requirements for this age, but children are exposed to amazing amounts of knowledge and often learn to read, write and calculate beyond what is usually thought interesting to a child of this age.
Requirements for ages 6-18
The teacher remains alert to the interests of each child and facilitates individual research in following interests. There are no curriculum requirements except those set by the state, or college entrance requirements, for specific grade levels. These take a minimum amount of time. From age six on, students design contracts with the teacher to guide their required work, to balance their general work, and to teach them to become responsible for their own time management and education. The work of the 6+ class includes subjects usually not introduced until high school or college.
Education of character is considered equally with academic education, children learning to take care of themselves, their environment, each other – cooking, cleaning, building, gardening, moving gracefully, speaking politely, being considerate and helpful, doing social work in the community, etc.
The information provided above is from the following web site: www.michaelolaf.net. Springhill Montessori School makes no warranties expressed or implied regarding the validity or accuracy of this information. It is provided as is.